Public Studies

The 2019 EU Market Monitor for Demand Side Flexibility

Published in November 2019

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Future for all: Making a future retail energy market work for everyone
This report was published in July 2019 for Citizens Advice.


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Fuel Cell Micro-CHP Status in the UK and Future Market Outlook

This article was published by the FCDIC in The Journey of Fuel Cell Technology, Volume 18 No. 4, in Spring 2019.


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Smart Energy GB: Smart Meter Benefits and Their Role in Mitigating Climate Change

These reports produced for Smart Energy GB look at cost savings households could make within a smart energy future, and the role of smart meters in mitigating climate change.





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The Technical Feasibility of Electric Heating in Rural Off-Gas Grid Dwellings

A report produced for the Department of Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (BEIS), investigating the feasibility of installing different types of electric heating in rural off-gas grid dwellings.

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Whitepaper: Walking In The Footsteps Of Giants:
Eight Lessons Energy Companies Can Learn From The Tech Sector's Mistakes

A whitepaper published in conjunction with Access Partnership:


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For further information, contact Andy Bradley.

Demand Scenarios Report

A report on the impact of heat pump uptake on the distribution network


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For further information, contact Stephen Harkin.

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This Study, funded by the Network Innovation Allowance, was completed in June 2016 for Electricity North West. It focused on:

  • Developing new granular load profiles for different types of heat pumps in different house types in the North West of England.
  • Assessing the scale of network investment costs that Electrity North West would need to make to support the uptake of heat pumps in its region under different scenarios.
  • Sizing the additional load (and associated network investment costs) on Electricity North West’s network that may arise from National Grid / energy suppliers / generators influencing heat pump operation for the benefit of the wider electricity system.
  • Considering the ‘customer side measures’ (e.g. insulating homes, over sizing heat pumps, adding in battery storage, etc.) that Electricity North West could introduce to influence and reduce the impact of heat pump on its network.
Too Hot To Handle

Policy Exchange’s new report highlights that the previous Government’s plan to decarbonise heating by fitting electric heat pumps in most homes by 2050 would cost about £300 billion. Delta-ee conducted the research for this report, but did not do the policy spin conclusions.


For further information on this report, contact

The opportunities for a fuel cell/heat pump hybrid technology in UK residential homes

Cost and carbon savings, customer appeal and network flexibility


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For further information, contact Cate Lyon.

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SGN – one of the UK’s gas distribution network operators - wanted to understand the potential for a combined fuel cell-heat pump technology to decarbonise residential heating in the UK, through continued use of high efficiency gas appliances.

Delta-ee undertook a research project to determine the potential configurations, benefits and impact of a hybrid, low carbon, domestic product combining a fuel cell and a heat pump for use in UK homes. Delta-ee analysed the possible architecture, operation, and market opportunity of such a combination. The analysis included: possible system architecture options; techno-economic potential; competition from alternative gas heating technologies; commercialisation pathways and challenges; and assessment of system flexibility.

The study will be used by SGN to inform its potential future role in any possible development of the combination technology.

Delta-ee Heat Study Report

The report concludes that gas can play a vital role in residential heat to 2050.


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For further information, contact Jennifer Arran.

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This ground-breaking report develops three scenarios for the future of residential heating in the UK – analysing how each scenario performs in terms of:

  • Impact on customers
  • Retrofitability
  • Impact on the energy system
  • Government target to completely decarbonise residential heat by 2050 

The report finds a balanced approach – with gas, heat networks and electric heating all playing major roles, could offer the lowest risk and lowest cost option to largely decarbonise heat. Other scenarios explored were a customer-choice led scenario, and one where heat networks and electric heating dominate. 

The report is the most comprehensive domestic heat study ever undertaken in the UK. The analyses focuses on how the residential heating sector can be decarbonised, by putting the customer at the centre of each scenario. Delta-ee then breaks down the housing stock into 35 different segments to model the performance of different heating appliances decade by decade to reach conclusions on how heating technologies could be effectively deployed in the UK. 

Jon Slowe, Director, Delta-ee and lead author of the Report said:

“The UK is about to embark on hugely challenging low carbon journey with lots of uncertainties. The biggest challenge we face is dealing with the 22 million homes that currently use gas boilers. Reductions in thermal demand and biomethane alone won’t be sufficient to reach DECC’s target to fully decarbonise residential heat by 2050. Our analysis shows that customers won’t voluntarily make the switch to lower carbon heating choices.

Full decarbonisation can be achieved by relying almost completely on electric heat pumps and zero carbon heat networks.  However, this imposes significant costs on customers and brings retrofit challenges. It also requires heat networks to reach beyond the dense urban areas which will be difficult, and will have a huge impact on the electricity distribution network and peak electricity demand on the coldest days of the year.”

Jennifer Arran, Analyst, Delta-ee and co-author said:

“A more balanced approach can reduce carbon emissions by 90% from 2010-20 levels, while avoiding the challenges of moving an additional 12 million suburban homes off the gas network. While this does require 75 TWh of biomethane, it imposes less additional cost on customers, has a lower impact on the energy system and allows heat networks to focus on the denser urban areas.

“Heat networks and electric heating play massive roles in both of our low carbon scenarios. But keeping low carbon gas appliances in the toolkit to decarbonise heat could significantly reduce the scale of the challenge.”

Delta-ee Benefits of Micro-CHP Study

The report, prepared for COGEN Europe, shows that micro-CHP will significantly contribute to EU goals

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 For further information, contact Steven Ashurst.

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New Study for Cogen Europe: Micro-CHP Benefits for the EU's Climate, Energy, and Competitiveness Objectives

Delta-ee has completed a new study for COGEN Europe, showing that Micro-CHP technologies can cut household energy bills by 25-34%, reduce household CO₂ emissions by up to two tonnes per year in 2015 and deliver primary energy savings of up to 25%. 

However, the report also shows that the right EU policy framework must be put in place if their contribution to achieving the EU’s energy, climate and competitiveness objectives is to be fully realised.
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This ground breaking study highlights how micro-CHP technologies empower consumers to produce their own low-carbon heat and electricity in an efficient manner, offering significant benefits for society in terms of electricity grid stability and integration of intermittent renewables. Delta-ee’s calculations indicate that installing a micro-CHP in an average German family home can cut the household’s energy bills by more than 25% and reduce its carbon footprint by up to two tonnes of CO₂ per year.

Download the reports here:

Report Title
Download the PDF The benefits of micro-CHP summary
Download the PDF Empowering energy consumers
Download the PDF Balancing renewables
Download the PDF Decarbonising heat
Download the PDF Providing energy security
Download the PDF Fostering economic growth

Speaking at the launch event, Scott Dwyer, Principal Analyst at Delta-ee and Manager of our Micro-CHP Research Service, said: “Micro-CHP is a promising technology for the European residential and commercial heating markets. Between 62-71% of respondents to our survey (carried out in Germany, the UK and the Netherlands) find micro-CHP products appealing. Policymakers will need to design smart policy frameworks that reward the energy efficiency, carbon reductions and flexibility delivered by micro-CHP technologies.”

Micro-CHP technology is uniquely placed to help improve energy efficiency and reduce greenhouse gas emissions from buildings, which are currently a major concern for policymakers at EU and national level. Micro-CHP today reduces CO₂ emissions by up to 36% compared to alternative efficient solutions, and modelling shows that a similar reduction should be expected in 2020. It also reduces energy bills by 26-34% now and in 2020. 

Research into the use of Smart Heat Pumps in Load Management

Research carried out in partnership with the University of Ulster for the Department of Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy
(formerly the Department of Energy & Climate Change)


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 For further information, contact Lukas Bergmann.

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What are the best methods of shifting peak demand with a heat pump system in the UK?

Delta-ee, working with the University of Ulster, is carrying out on-going research for the Department for Business, Energy and Industrial Strategy (BEIS) to understand how heat pump flexibility can be captured for peak shifting. Answering this question will be of critical importance in the UK in the near term, as the need to avoid distribution grid congestion increases. The work for BEIS forms part of the UK’s contribution to the IEA Heat Pump Programme Annex 42 on Heat Pumps in Smart Grids.

The first parts of our research are now published on BEIS’s website – below you can download our one page summaries, or download the full reports. If you have any questions regarding the content of any of the reports please contact Lukas Bergmann at 

Key Question
1 page summary
Download full report
What are all the possible technology & market mechanisms for peak shifting with heat pumps? How ‘smart’ do heat pumps need to be?

Download the PDF

Analysis of "smart-ready heat pump" requirements and UK products

 What are the (UK-specific) factors influencing the use of these mechanisms for peak shifting? Download the PDF

UK market report – analysis of characteristics of the heating market, building stock, and end-users and their influence on the use of heat pumps for peak shifting

To what extent have these peak shifting mechanisms been tested in the UK already in with heat pumps? Download the PDF

Review of relevant UK modelling studies

Review of relevant UK demonstration projects

Where is further research required to inform decisions on how to utilise heat pumps for peak shifting in practice? Download the PDF

Gap Analysis - recommendations for further work

Research into the performance and market potential of commercial-scale gas heat pumps in the UK

Research for the Department of Business, Energy & Industrial Strategy (formerly the Department of Energy & Climate Change) carried out in partnership with David Strong Consulting Ltd.


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 For further information, contact Lindsay Sugden.

Learn more and download the reports
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What is the potential for gas heat pumps in commercial buildings in the UK?

Delta-ee, working with David Strong Consulting Ltd, has carried out research for DECC to understand how well gas heat pumps perform in real installations, and what the market potential in the UK is. Answering this question will support DECC’s decision regarding the possible inclusion of gas heat pumps in the commercial Renewable Heat Incentive. Gas heat pumps are the only one of the suite of “new” technologies investigated by DECC to be taken forward to the next stage of consideration for the RHI.

The main issues addressed in Delta-ee’s report are as follows:

Current market:

  • Understanding gas heat pump technologies, products and sales channels – How do engine and sorption systems compare? Who are the main players in the global and European market? What are the sales channels through which gas heat pumps can be accessed in the UK?
  • Collecting and analysing real performance data of gas heat pumps from across the UK and Europe
  • Sizing the UK market and understanding where gas heat pumps are currently installed in the UK building stock

Future market:

  • Understanding the addressable market – segmenting the UK commercial building stock and understanding demand patterns
  • Understanding the potential application of gas heat pumps? i.e. heating, cooling or hot water?; which end-use sectors?; new build or retrofit?; on-gas or on-gas? Drawing on experience outside the UK, where could gas heat pumps be installed?
  • Analysing the market drivers and barriers in the UK to adoption of gas heat pumps
  • Modelling the economic proposition for different types of gas heat pumps against the incumbent technologies today and in the future.
  • Forecasting market uptake for gas heat pumps under three scenarios

The main report from our research is now published on DECC’s website – below you can download DECC’s summary document, Delta-ee’s summary slides, or download the full report.

download web DECC Summary Report                                              
download web Delta-ee Summary
download web Full Report
Policy measures for heat pump market growth

Report for Danish Energy Agency, published December 2013

 For further information, contact Lindsay Sugden.

If you would like to find out more about Delta-ee consultancy projects, please get in touch.

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